WHAT IS SPRINKLER IRRIGATION METHOD?
The system which sprinkles water to the soil surface under a certain pressure in tiny drips like the rain and which consists of pipelines, spray settings or nozzles is called “Sprinkler Irrigation Method”. In the sprinkler systems, the water which is conveyed to the sprinkler heads under pressure is applied to the surface of the soil in the form of artificial rain. A water delivery system consisting of the main pipeline and a lateral line and a system providing the pressure is required in order to apply the method. The pressure is usually provided by the pumping unit. The spray settings complete the system. Various types of sprinkler heads are used depending on the plant and the soil to be irrigated and the economic conditions.
OPERATING SYSTEMS FOR SPRINKLER IRRIGATION METHOD
– Portable Systems: The motopomp unit, main pipeline, and laterals can be moved in this system. This is the most common system in Turkey.
– Semi Portable Systems: Motopomp unit and the main pipeline are stationary, laterals are movable. Usually, the main pipeline is buried under the ground. This system is widely used for watering fruits and vegetables.
– Stationary (Fixed) Systems: The motopomp, main pipeline, and laterals are fixed in this system.
WHAT TO KNOW ABOUT APPLYING SPRINKLER IRRIGATION METHOD
The data required especially while designing the sprinkler irrigation methods is as follows:
– Usable water holding capacity of the soil: The plants can benefit from the water between the field capacity and permanent wilting point in the soil. The amount of this humidity is called the “usable water holding capacity” or “available capacity” of the soil. It varies depending on the structure of the soil.
– Effective Root Depths: The root depth at which 80% of the water that plants need for their normal development is called “Effective Root Depth”. This value constitutes the depth of the soil to be wetted during the irrigation, and it usually ranges from 30 to 180 centimeters depending on the plant.
ADVANTAGES OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION METHOD
The advantages of Sprinkler irrigation method over the surface irrigation methods are as follows.
– The efficiency of water consumption is high. The water can be exploited at the maximum level where the irrigation water is scarce.
– Irrigation can be done without causing erosion in the rough terrain (topography) with sloping areas.
– It eliminates the situation in which the plant cannot come out of the soil during seed germination due to the crusting on the soil.
– It ensures savings from operating costs and labor.
– It is the most suitable irrigation system in shallow, permeable soil with low depth.
– The salt sprouts, dust and harmful insects which are moved by the wind and left on the plants especially in the coastal areas can be washed by sprinkling.
– Since it is possible to control the water in sprinkler irrigation, it is the most suitable irrigation method in the areas where the groundwater is high and there is a drainage problem.
– Since there is no need for field ditches, the cultivation area is increasing and the agricultural operations are carried out easily.
– Soluble artificial fertilizers can be given along with irrigation water without needing labor.
– Vegetables, citrus orchards, and other fruit orchards can be protected from frost and hot.